Where does the week come from? How did it come about?
The definition of the seven-day week does not exist on the basis of rational existence, being an effect totally without norms of history.
One week is 23.659% of a lunar cycle, so seven days is not about a lunar cycle. Our hands have 10 fingers there is no logic for the week to have 7 days since our number system is decimal. So looking at all concepts, we see no reason for a 7-day week.
In the Hebrew system, the week is a divine creation. A time mark for representation of Creation. A cycle of remembrance for creation. In the biblical scriptures we have the reports from the Mosaic accounts. But we have older written texts. For example, in 2150 BC, he cites the creation of seven days and reports that Noah separated the days into seven, and acted according to the seven-day rules.
We therefore have almost a thousand years earlier reports on the seven days in Assyrian-Babylonian culture  . Showing that the week was a common separation of the ancient peoples. And that it was respected. So again we have a factor placed as divine at the beginning of the week. So the week itself is a divine factor. See that the divine term is the idea that an information has been given from Heaven, and that this is from something outside the natural human.
When one examines the question of the seven days, one sees that the importance of such a cycle is on the seventh day, the shabbath. So that the whole week is created to define such a day. Without that day the week loses its sense of existence. If the week exists, then the fundamental importance is in the shabbath.
So we have to say that if you dont give importance to the shabbath you dont give importance to the week, and therefore you dont give importance to the idea that there is a creator. Thus nullifying the existence of a creative being. As it was seen that the shabbath predates the Hebrew-Mosaic writing, we have to say that this is a very ancient culture in the Semitic region, and a custom of the Assyrian-Babylonian peoples of the Shabbath rest system.
In other words, the accounts that are held are that the Semitic peoples kept the Sabbath, long before it was reported in the writings of Moses  . So we have that the Semitic peoples kept the Sabbath linked to the week.
So the Sabbath keeping is not of the people of Israel, but it is of a much older strand than the formation of the Hebrew people. It refers to before the Babylonian peoples, reported in the foundations of creation. This is seen by the creation accounts in the Assyrian-Babylonian documents  .
So we have that the creation of the week refers to creation itself, that the shabbath was the landmark of the cycle of all Creation, and that all peoples sanctified that day, and over the years they have forgotten the foundation of the creation story, but they kept the weekly division, losing its real meaning.
This historical analysis is well determined by the term found in the Mosaic writings, which says
Exo 20: 8 Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy.
The word "Remember" is (זכר - zâkar - zaw-kar '), which generates the idea of an earlier milestone. That you should look at an existing landmark. Which shows the concept of the previous story. That the Semitic peoples knew about creation and kept the shabbath but forgot both the Creator and the Creator's holy day. Thus the Mosaic writing does not come to produce new information, but only to recall old information, and a system of sanctification much older than the period in which he wrote such term.
So the Sabbath is not a norm given in the Moslem period, it comes from the creation to the present day and continues, as being a mark of the Creation of God.
1 - In the flood story of the Assyro-Babylonian epic of Gilgamesh the storm lasts for seven days, the dove is sent out after seven days, and the Noah -like character of Utnapishtim leaves the ark seven days after it reaches firm ground.
2 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Week
3 - Pinches, TG (2003). "Sabbath (Babylonian)". In Hastings, James. Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics 20. Selbie, John A., contrib. Kessinger Publishing. pp. 889891. ISBN 978-0-7661-3698-4. Retrieved 2009-03-17.
4 - Albert T. Clay, The Origin of Biblical Traditions: Hebrew Legends in Babylon and Israel, 1923, p. 74.
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Saturday, week, origin of the week, creation