If the Sabbath was the day of the full moon with the Babylonians, we would expect it to be the same with the earlier Hebrews, to whom it was more or less indirectly communicated. Here again, the evidence seems to confirm our expectations. The word שָׁבַת is probably contracted from שָׁבַתת (thus Olshausen, Konig, driver, WR Smith, cook, etc.). The root שבת (cf. Is 14: 4, 24: 8) in its transitive form means "to cut, to put an end to"; in its intransitive form "to give up, to come to an end, to be an end, to be complete." (Arabic, to cut, intercept) The grammatical form of שבת, according to some, suggests a transitive meaning, "the divisor," or it is apparently the day that divides the month, the day 15 or the day of the full moon.Meinhold (ZATW XXIX, 101) takes this in the intransitive sense and defends שבת the meaning " or complete, 1Eg. in AJ Th., II, pp. 312ff. the full moon.
But the analyzes that are suggested in relation to the moon, is bound to the taste of defining the moon as primordial. For the term "to cut, to divide, to separate," can bind to whatever one chooses. In fact the week itself is already a division, without needing any concept of moon. In fact binding the moon to this division, as dividing the lunar cycle is merely a speculation. Seen completely away from the Hebrew foundation that the week is linked to creation. Being a lunar system or we would have the moon as the foundation of creation, or the moon would be the foundation of the week. Neither of them happens, in fact the moon and the sun are not defined as paths of the week (Gen 1:14). Which makes the connection of the lunar system to the Hebrew system of the week greatly fanciful.
So many derivations of the word, however, have been given (for a summary, see Beer, Sabbath, 13, note 3), that little help can be expected from the word itself, until more positive evidence is, should not be identified with נוּחַ, "to rest, to rest". The idea of rest is a later one, which means it was read in the word. What manages that the term rest described in (Gen 2: 2) is not that described in (Deu 3:20). Defining that in Gen 2: 2 the idea of a day of pleasure or satisfaction (Isa 58:13).
In fact even in periods of nomadic phase (Num 14:30), such determined the concept of week, with sabbatical rest. In fact, the Sabbath quotation is defined as something remote (Exo 20:11), configuring the connection with (Gen 2: 1-3). Generating the idea that Abraham came from Ur in a system of agricultural work and directed the Palestine from the same hypothesis that Moses left Egypt in agricultural system, and generated the nomadic system in the desert, so also the possibility of Abraham having the concept of the week, just as Moses did.
Ex. 20: 8ff. and Dt. 5: 12 ff., Where the Sabbath is identified with the seventh day, all modern scholars agree that the law was originally: "observe (variant 'remember') the Sabbath to sanctify it? Ex. 20: 9-11 is the addition of a late P reductant and Dt. 5 by the vast majority of scholars is placed in or close to exile. In any case, it is a late amplification of the previous law, more simply expressed. What we have is that the term rest שבת (Gen 2: 2) differs from rest נוּחַ, (Deu 3:20). What makes rest שבת (Gen 2: 2), a special term, and thus becomes a substance, and demarcates as a sacred day because of its reference in שבת (Gen 2: 2). In fact it was different and the term resting would be used נוּחַ, (Deu 3:20). What causes the whole Sabbath term to be connected to the reference of שבת (Gen 2: 2).
While the origin of the week by the Sabbath is not bound to the moon (Gen 1:14), in a late suitability we have the Sabbath in Israel related to the new moon and is evenly coupled to it, eg Am 8: 4, and sec., Hos. 2:13, Isa. 1: 13ff, 2 Kings 4:23 (see also the reminiscences of this association in later literature, Ezekiel 45:17, 46: 3, Psalm 81: 3, Nehemiah 10:34, Isa 66:23 , I Chron 23:31,IIChron. 2: 3, 8:13, 31: 3). Exactly in the Babylonian literature, the first and the fifteenth day are grouped together (Radau, Early Babyl, History, p.315, Pinches, PSBA, XXVI, 09). The Harranians had four days of sacrifice each month, at least two of which were determined by the conjunction and opposition of the moon (Encycl. Brit., 11th edition, XXIII, 961). The ancient Hindus watched the new moon and the full moon as days of sacrifice. Both the full moon and the new moon evidently had a religious significance among the ancient Hebrews (cf. Ps 81: 3), for when the great agricultural festivals were set to set dates, the days selected were full moons. What would demarcate a late assimilation of such common customs of the time. In fact it would be irrational to have an initial description that does not demarcate the moon as a separation of weeks(Gen. 1:14) , and then have this use, and define that use is earlier, and contrary to the previous definition (Gen 1:14). Thus the definition that Genesis is a description of the foundation of the Hebrew concept, and not defining the moon as the separator of the week (Gen 1:14), is that the moon became a late definition.
This can be observed, since the Babylonian importance is on the full moon, linked to the 15th, not the separations of seven days. So being new moon and full moon would not define 7 days but 15 days. Which determines that the seven days are outside the measure stipulated by the lunar cycles (Gen 1:14).
It is possible to see the need of the Sabbath for the Hebrews (Ezekiel 20:13, 16; 21:24; 22: 8,26; 23:38) as their link from the seventh day to the pre-Hebrew period (Exodus 20: 8-11) which shows the connection of the seventh day, and the Sabbath of creation for every period of the Old Testament. But defining that belatedly divides the divisions by the moon. Like the influence of the Hamurabi code. This clearly shows that between the old concepts (Gen 1:14), and the later ones we have an aggregation of customs of the peoples, different from the customs defined as initials. Among them vegetarian food (Gen 1:29). In fact such a concept of non-lunar week (Gen 1:14), and vegetarian eating (Gen 1:29), or even the definition that celestial objects are classified as things (Gen 1). They demarcate a beginning outside the standard concepts, being singular.
Usually a Sabbath analysis in the Old Testament attempts to ignore the singularities, and their origin, and stipulate a possible later aggregation of culture as before. However, but the previous one, the singularities would not appear. If there are singularities these are the original system and not the other way around. An easy way to understand such a lack would be that by adopting the reading of books and notebooks for hundreds of years, and a reference of writings in the sand, it is justified that he does not hear written in the sand, by the amount of later references of writings in notebooks. In other words, to use the several years in which it was written in the notebooks can not be contrary to a reference to an earlier concept of writing in the sand.
This requires logic.
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