Clinical Nutrition Modified Diets
In clinical nutrition we have diets that have.
Regarding the volume can be, normal, increased or decreased.
Regarding Consistency, normal, pasty, light, liquid, liquid without residue
Regarding the waste may be with or without waste
residues are parts of food that are not digested, typically fibers, and parts difficult foods to digest and usually give volume to the fecal bolus in the intestine.
The basic method for a nutritional assessment.
It is based on eating history, physical examination, anthropometric measurements and biochemical tests.
It involves an interpretation of multiple indicators for nutritional diagnosis and monitoring of the adequacy of nutritional intervention.
Regarding the difference in consistency, it is indicated:
Diet without residues, in pre and immediate postoperative period, high endoscopy (EAD), colonoscopy, post chemotherapy and post radiotherapy.
Residual diet: pre and postoperative with longer hours, mucositis, acute diarrhea, post-chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
In pathological situations we may have the following diets.
General Diet: Supplements nutritionally, not restricting calories or nutrients. Suitable for patients without specific needs.
Soft Diet: Nutritionally complete, lower fiber content, are slowed by cooking, reducing waste formation. Indicated for pre-surgical patients, use of dental prostheses, difficulty chewing or swallowing, esophageal diseases, gastritis or peptic ulcer.
Pasty Diet: Nutritionally complete with modified consistency, pasty form or (mashed or mashed). For patients with difficulty chewing or swallowing due to inflammation, neurological damage, neuromotor disorders, severe mental retardation, esophageal disease, anatomical changes of the mouth, and use of dental prosthesis.
Liquid diet: indicated for postoperative patients who have difficulty chewing and swallowing, but who do not have risk of bronchoaspiration. It is a transitional diet and is usually inadequate from a nutritional point of view.
Light diet: Pre and postoperative and patients with difficulties in chewing and swallowing.
Main parameters that should be evaluated during the preparation of the nutritional chart
1 Anthropometry: to evaluate percentage of body fat and lean mass to compare the patient's evolution before and after the dietary prescription;
2 Laboratory tests: to evaluate biochemical data to observe possible or nutritional deficiencies, as well as to evaluate biomarkers related to non-communicable chronic diseases.
3 Physical Examination: evaluate physical signs related to certain diseases;
4 Eating habits, preferences and aversions: for better adherence to nutritional treatment based on an individualized eating plan;
5 Food intolerance and allergies: do not cause any harm to the patient's health, when diagnosed intolerances and allergies, guide them which foods should be excluded or included in the diet;
6 Functional Capacity: Verify if the patient is able to feed properly, orally, without the help of others, so that adequate supply of nutrients to the patient occurs.
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